ONCE WE ARE CHILDREN

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Evaluating the Problem

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The email address must be connected to a subscribing college, university, or other subscribing institution. Gmail and other free email addresses will not have access. Blanchflower , Andrew E. Development of the American Economy.

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Economic Fluctuations and Growth. International Finance and Macroeconomics.

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They can talk to children at their different developmental levels, and to parents at their different pitches of anxiety. And they acknowledged and took on this globally scary question of whether a little anesthesia leaves a little patient with a changed brain. General anesthesia is one of the great blessings of medical science, making surgery possible without the agonies suffered in the past.

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Lena S. Sun, the chief of the division of pediatric anesthesiology at Columbia University, pointed to an animal study published in as raising this concern. Sun said.

The association observed in animal studies between the prolonged drug exposure and the effects made it imperative to find ways to look at children. In , after reviewing existing evidence , the Food and Drug Administration warned that long anesthetic exposures or multiple exposures might affect brain development in young children, so parents and pregnant women should discuss the potential risks with their doctors. Some retrospective studies suggested associations between multiple surgeries with anesthesia and later learning disabilities.

Sun, one of the first people to sound the alarm about a possible long-term impact of general anesthesia, was the lead investigator on the Pediatric Anesthesia Neurodevelopment Assessment study , known as the Panda study acronyms are very important in medical trials, maybe especially when children are involved.

It used pairs of siblings to look at the association between a single exposure to general anesthesia before a child was 3, and later cognitive function.

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The results, published in , showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the siblings who were exposed and those who were not, in I. And now the new study, which represents a huge international collaborative effort, shows that single, relatively brief exposures to anesthesia did not lead to learning problems.

The average duration of anesthesia in children is about an hour. The pattern that emerged from early studies, Dr.

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In a study of a population of children in Minnesota , approximately one in seven children under 3 received anesthesia, and a quarter of those had either multiple operations, or else a single prolonged exposure. The children underwent a comprehensive neurodevelopmental battery of tests.