Industry and the Region:Theories, Techniques and Applications

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Toggle navigation Additional Book Information. Description Table of Contents. Summary Describing NDE issues associated with real-world applications, this comprehensive book details conventional and forthcoming NDE technologies. It instructs on current practices, common techniques and equipment applications, and the potentials and limitations of current NDE methods.

Each chapter details a different method, providing an overview, an explanation of the fundamental physical laws governing the method, the inspection techniques and typical equipment used in it's application, final system integration of transducers, supporting instrumentation, commonly practiced procedures necessary for viable NDE inspection, examples of how the method can be applied, and end-of-chapter problems. This revealed unappreciated limitations of the CH network and allowed remedial action to be taken.

The modern field of operational research arose during World War II. During the Second World War close to 1, men and women in Britain were engaged in operational research. About operational research scientists worked for the British Army.

Patrick Blackett worked for several different organizations during the war. Early in the war while working for the Royal Aircraft Establishment RAE he set up a team known as the "Circus" which helped to reduce the number of anti-aircraft artillery rounds needed to shoot down an enemy aircraft from an average of over 20, at the start of the Battle of Britain to 4, in Britain introduced the convoy system to reduce shipping losses, but while the principle of using warships to accompany merchant ships was generally accepted, it was unclear whether it was better for convoys to be small or large.

Convoys travel at the speed of the slowest member, so small convoys can travel faster. It was also argued that small convoys would be harder for German U-boats to detect. On the other hand, large convoys could deploy more warships against an attacker. Blackett's staff showed that the losses suffered by convoys depended largely on the number of escort vessels present, rather than the size of the convoy. Their conclusion was that a few large convoys are more defensible than many small ones. While performing an analysis of the methods used by RAF Coastal Command to hunt and destroy submarines, one of the analysts asked what colour the aircraft were.

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As most of them were from Bomber Command they were painted black for night-time operations. At the suggestion of CC-ORS a test was run to see if that was the best colour to camouflage the aircraft for daytime operations in the grey North Atlantic skies. Other work by the CC-ORS indicated that on average if the trigger depth of aerial-delivered depth charges DCs were changed from feet to 25 feet, the kill ratios would go up.

The reason was that if a U-boat saw an aircraft only shortly before it arrived over the target then at feet the charges would do no damage because the U-boat wouldn't have had time to descend as far as feet , and if it saw the aircraft a long way from the target it had time to alter course under water so the chances of it being within the foot kill zone of the charges was small. It was more efficient to attack those submarines close to the surface when the targets' locations were better known than to attempt their destruction at greater depths when their positions could only be guessed.

Blackett observed "there can be few cases where such a great operational gain had been obtained by such a small and simple change of tactics". All damage inflicted by German air defences was noted and the recommendation was given that armour be added in the most heavily damaged areas. This recommendation was not adopted because the fact that the aircraft were able to return with these areas damaged indicated the areas were not vital, and adding armour to non-vital areas where damage is acceptable reduces aircraft performance.

Their suggestion to remove some of the crew so that an aircraft loss would result in fewer personnel losses, was also rejected by RAF command. Blackett's team made the logical recommendation that the armour be placed in the areas which were completely untouched by damage in the bombers which returned. They reasoned that the survey was biased, since it only included aircraft that returned to Britain. The areas untouched in returning aircraft were probably vital areas, which, if hit, would result in the loss of the aircraft.

When Germany organized its air defences into the Kammhuber Line , it was realized by the British that if the RAF bombers were to fly in a bomber stream they could overwhelm the night fighters who flew in individual cells directed to their targets by ground controllers. It was then a matter of calculating the statistical loss from collisions against the statistical loss from night fighters to calculate how close the bombers should fly to minimize RAF losses. The "exchange rate" ratio of output to input was a characteristic feature of operational research.

By comparing the number of flying hours put in by Allied aircraft to the number of U-boat sightings in a given area, it was possible to redistribute aircraft to more productive patrol areas. Comparison of exchange rates established "effectiveness ratios" useful in planning. The ratio of 60 mines laid per ship sunk was common to several campaigns: German mines in British ports, British mines on German routes, and United States mines in Japanese routes.

Operational research doubled the on-target bomb rate of Bs bombing Japan from the Marianas Islands by increasing the training ratio from 4 to 10 percent of flying hours; revealed that wolf-packs of three United States submarines were the most effective number to enable all members of the pack to engage targets discovered on their individual patrol stations; revealed that glossy enamel paint was more effective camouflage for night fighters than traditional dull camouflage paint finish, and a smooth paint finish increased airspeed by reducing skin friction.

They analyzed, among other topics, the effectiveness of artillery, aerial bombing and anti-tank shooting. With expanded techniques and growing awareness of the field at the close of the war, operational research was no longer limited to only operational, but was extended to encompass equipment procurement, training, logistics and infrastructure.

Operations research - Wikipedia

Operations Research also grew in many areas other than the military once scientists learned to apply its principles to the civilian sector. With the development of the simplex algorithm for linear programming in [26] and the development of computers over the next three decades, Operations Research can now "solve problems with hundreds of thousands of variables and constraints. Moreover, the large volumes of data required for such problems can be stored and manipulated very efficiently.

Fortunately the cybernetics field also required the same level of randomness. The development of increasingly better random number generators has been a boon to both disciplines. Modern applications of operations research include city planning, football strategies, emergency planning, optimizing all facets of industry and economy, and undoubtfully with the likelihood of the inclusion of terrorist attack planning and definitely counter-terrorist attack planning.

A link to future's research should also be included here. Operational research is also used extensively in government where evidence-based policy is used. In Stafford Beer characterized the field of management science as "the business use of operations research". It uses various scientific research -based principles, strategies , and analytical methods including mathematical modeling , statistics and numerical algorithms to improve an organization's ability to enact rational and meaningful management decisions by arriving at optimal or near optimal solutions to complex decision problems.

Management scientists help businesses to achieve their goals using the scientific methods of operational research. The management scientist's mandate is to use rational, systematic, science-based techniques to inform and improve decisions of all kinds. Of course, the techniques of management science are not restricted to business applications but may be applied to military, medical, public administration, charitable groups, political groups or community groups.

Management science is concerned with developing and applying models and concepts that may prove useful in helping to illuminate management issues and solve managerial problems, as well as designing and developing new and better models of organizational excellence. The application of these models within the corporate sector became known as management science.

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Moreover, changes in relative prices are not readily handled by this modeling approach alone. Input—output accounts are part and parcel to a more flexible form of modeling, computable general equilibrium models.

Two additional difficulties are of interest in transportation work. There is the question of substituting one input for another, and there is the question about the stability of coefficients as production increases or decreases.

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These are intertwined questions. They have to do with the nature of regional production functions. Because the input—output model is fundamentally linear in nature, it lends itself to rapid computation as well as flexibility in computing the effects of changes in demand. Input—output models for different regions can also be linked together to investigate the effects of inter-regional trade, and additional columns can be added to the table to perform environmentally extended input-output analysis EEIOA.

For example, information on fossil fuel inputs to each sector can be used to investigate flows of embodied carbon within and between different economies. The structure of the input—output model has been incorporated into national accounting in many developed countries, and as such can be used to calculate important measures such as national GDP. Input—output economics has been used to study regional economies within a nation, and as a tool for national and regional economic planning.